Chapter Eleven: Income Inequality and Poverty
11.2 Measuring Income Distribution: By Income Levels (01:13)
This clip categorizes U.S. households by their income levels and suggests a wide dispersion of household income in the United States.
11.3 Measuring Income Distribution: Quantiles, Lorenz Curve & Gini Ratio (06:13)
This clip explains how quantile statistics can be used to measure income distribution and how Lorenz Curve and Gini Ratio are related to the quantile measurement of income distribution.
11.4 Income Mobility over Time (02:28)
This clip introduces the concept of income mobility, discusses the “life cycle” of income mobility and questions the of a lack of upward income mobility for certain groups of people.
11.5 Income Inequality: Effects of Government Redistribution (03:04)
This clip introduces the concept of before-tax-and-transfer income and after-tax-and-transfer income, and discusses the effects of government transfers on the income of low income households.
11.6 Income Inequality: Causes (03:42)
This clip discusses several causes contributing to income inequality in the United States, including personal factors, market factors, and wealth factors.
11.7 Growing Income Inequality over Time and Causes (04:58)
This clip examines the growing income inequality in the United States since 1970 and discusses the causes contributing to this trend.
11.9 Arguments For and Against Income Redistribution (03:10)
This clip provides the argument for and against income redistribution and points out the difficult question of equality and efficiency tradeoff.
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11.10 The Diminishing Marginal Utility Argument for Income Equality (04:08)
This clip provides a graphical analysis of the diminishing marginal utility argument for income equality.
11.11 The Economics of Poverty (04:18)
This clip provides a definition of poverty and poverty rate, discusses the incidence of poverty and its trend, and explore some measurement issues associated with poverty thresholds.
11.12 The U.S. Income-Maintenance System (03:13)
This clip provides an introduction to income-maintenance programs in the U.S., including the various social insurance programs and the public assistance programs.
11.14 Public Assistance Programs (03:31)
This clip provides an introduction to public assistance programs in the U.S., including the Supplemental Security Income, the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families, the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, Medicaid, and the Earned Income Tax Credit.
11.15 Characteristics of Major Income-Maintenance Programs in the U.S. (01:06)
This clip provides a table summarizing the characteristics of major income-maintenance programs in the U.S., including eligibilities, funding sources, forms of aid, expenditure magnitudes, and beneficiaries.